From ESA to ESCAPE: A conceptual model for teaching English in vocational higher education

2016 IJRSLL – Volume 5 Issue 4


Musdariah, Andi
State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang, Indonesia (

Anas, Ismail*
State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang, Indonesia (

Muchtar, Naely
State Polytechnic of Ujung Pandang, Indonesia (


The study develops a modified model generating a procedural guide in lesson planning construction for teaching English within the Vocational Higher Education (VHE). The work elaborates six essential elements in constructing ELT lesson plan, they are: engage, study, create, activate, practice, and evaluate, and it is so-called ESCAPE. Each element of the model represents pedagogical theories and practical approaches that constitute a guided direction and/or instruction for the construction of a practice-based teaching lesson plan. The study employed Research and Development (R&D) design through a focus group discussion (FGD) involving three experts specializing on ELT methodology, English course material development, and English curriculum development. A RASCH measurement analysis using WINSTEP and Factor Analysis using SPSS were employed in the study. The work suggests this modified model to be used in VHE and recommends further development on pedagogical theories underpinning each element, clarity of instructions, and method of implementation. Some limitations to this model were also identified.

Keywords: ESCAPE; ELT; lesson plan; Vocational Higher Education (VHE)



*Corresponding Author