Validating a context-specific teacher critical pedagogy questionnaire

2016 IJRSLL – Volume 5 Issue 4


Roohani, Ali
Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran (

Hashemian, Mahmood
Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran (

Haghparast, Shahrzad*
Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran (


Making a difference might be a teacher’s desire in the classroom and critical pedagogy (CP) would appear to be a path to reach to that dream. Despite the rapid spread of English in Iran and the significance that critical pedagogy has attained in second/foreign language (L2) teaching, few studies have been conducted to survey Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ critical pedagogy utilized in the classroom. Also, the lack of an instrument to measure the degree of critical pedagogy practiced in the classroom was highly remarkable. Due to the importance that critical pedagogy can have in the process of teaching and also on the students’ way of thinking and given the lack of a valid test to assess L2 teachers’ critical pedagogy, this study attempted to design and validate a context-specific questionnaire (Teacher Critical Pedagogy, TCP) to assess the degree of critical pedagogy practiced in the classroom by L2 teachers in the context of Iran. In order to test the reliability of the scale, Cronbach’s alpha measure was used. Also, to examine the validity of TCP, evidence from content, concurrent and construct validity was obtained through triangulation methods. The results of factor analysis through the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique with the data collected from a sample of 397 Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers, by using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) software, confirmed the validity of the test with six sub-dimensions.

Keywords: critical pedagogy; questionnaire; validity; factor analysis; L2 teachers



*Corresponding Author