Multiple intelligences and their representation in the EFL young learners’ textbooks

2014 IJRSLL – Volume 3 Issue 6


Estaji, Masoomeh*
Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran (

Nafisi, Mahdieh
Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran (


This study was set out with the aim of investigating the extent to which young learners’ textbooks reflect and engage multiple intelligences (MI). Furthermore, the current study considered the frequency with which each type of intelligences was presented in young learners’ textbooks at four different levels. In particular, it was an attempt to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the currently used books to determine whether the books should be reconstructed to boost MI varieties in the content and to what extent teachers are required to utilize supplementary materials to cover the deficiencies. To this end, a multiple intelligences checklist was developed, based on the framework of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, to examine the selected textbook in relation to different intelligences as reflected through various activities and tasks. Accordingly, eight textbooks which are currently taught at a language institute young learners’ department have been analyzed according to the aforementioned MI checklist. Careful analysis of the selected textbooks revealed that the intelligence profile of these textbooks is primarily verbal/ linguistic. Naturalistic intelligence is recognized as the least intelligence type provided only at intermediate and advanced levels textbooks, and no example of spiritual and existential intelligences was found. However, a fair percentage of distribution for the remaining intelligence types was reported. Pedagogically, the findings of the study hold the implication that policy makers, administrators, and materials developers especially those involved in developing materials for EFL young learners, consider the necessity of applying all intelligence types in designing young EFL learners’ textbooks.

Keywords: multiple intelligences; textbook analysis; young learners; tasks and activities



*Corresponding Author