Proceduralization, transfer of training and retention of knowledge as a result of output practice

2014 IJRSLL – Volume 3 Issue 2


Mehrnoosh, Fakharzadeh*
University of Isfahan, Iran (

Manijah, Youhanaee
University of Isfahan, Iran (

Daryoush, Nejadansari
University of Isfahan, Iran (


This study investigated the effect of output practice on the proceduralization, transfer and retention of knowledge on English modals, adopting Anderson’s ACT-R model of skill acquisition. A pretest posttest and delayed posttest design was used where the procedural knowledge on production skill was specifically operationalized through the groups’ performance on Dual Task Timed Completion Test and transfer of training was measures through a Dual Task Timed Grammaticality Judgment Test. Two intact classes of intermediate EFL learners were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The output group (n= 27) received explicit grammar instruction, a combination of three output tasks including dictogloss, individual text reconstruction, and corrected-close translation, and feedback. The control group (n=25) were just exposed to the identical texts trough listening and reading tasks followed by some questions irrelevant to the target structure. Results showed that on the posttest, three days after the last treatment session, the output group outperformed the control group in both measures of procedural knowledge and transfer of knowledge. As for retention, forty days later, the output group’s performance was still significantly better than that on the pretest. This group also succeeded in retaining its outperformance on both measures of procedural knowledge and transfer of knowledge delayed posttest. The results may help language teachers design more effective activities for the learners considering the institutional constraints.

Keywords: ACT-R skill learning theory; Procedural knowledge; transfer of training; retention



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