Balanced reading instructions: An action research on elementary cram school students

2012 IJRSLL – Volume 1 Issue 1


Chou, Chuing Prudence
National Chengchi University, Taiwan, ROC (

Wang, Shirly
Dian Harapan School, Indonesia (

Ching, Gregory S.*
Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (


English language learning as the first and foreign language has always been an important factor in a child’s life as a student. As the usage of the English language becomes ever more apparent, East Asian nation like Taiwan has started to place much focus on its teaching. However, many parents in Taiwan are still unsatisfied with their children’s English abilities at formal school; thus, they send their children to cram school. Most parents’ objective is to improve their child’s reading ability and attitude, by means of exploring any effective teaching strategies. In light of this, the main objective of this study is to determine how balanced reading instructions will enhance English learning effectiveness among English as Foreign Language learners. An action study was done in order to identify teaching effects of a balanced reading instruction. A pilot study was first accomplished, which later served as the backbone of the formal study. Participants were fifteen (15) first graders in an English cram school in Taipei, Taiwan. Data were gained from abecedarian reading assessment, reading attitude questionnaires, observations, interviews and recordings. Results showed that balanced reading instructions worked better for low to intermediate level students’ letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and reading attitude. In addition, balanced reading instruction also help built-up students’ confident and created a healthy learning environment by collaborating the stronger readers to help weaker readers in the classroom.

Keywords: balanced reading instructions; letter knowledge; phonological awareness; reading attitude; EFL; cram school



*Corresponding Author