Shadow education: Effects on students’ self-efficacy in science

2016 IJRSE – Volume 5 Issue 1


Montebon, Darryl Roy T.*
Institute of Teaching and Learning, Philippine Normal University, Philippines (


This study aims to investigate the effect of shadow education on students’ self-efficacy. Shadow education or tutoring mimics the mainstream form of education (Bray, 1999) while self-efficacy is a personal judgment of one’s capability to plan and execute a course of action to achieve a certain goal (Bandura, 1977 as cited by Zimmerman, 2000). Results of this study described the tutorial background of the respondents and their self-efficacy levels. It has been found out that students’ self-efficacy due to exposure to shadow education is high. The self-efficacy of students does not necessarily vary when compared by gender, grade level, and the length of time that respondents have been going to tutorial sessions.

Keywords: shadow education; tutoring in science; self-efficacy in science; shadow education in the Philippines



*Corresponding Author