Metadiscourse in academic writing of senior high school students

2022 IJRSE – Volume 11 Issue 9
Special IJRSE Luminary Issue

Available Online:  15 April 2022


De Castro, Tracy Joy
Batangas State University / Taysan National High School, Philippines (


This study examined metadiscourse in academic writing of senior high school students in Area IV, Division of Batangas Province. This described academic writing in senior high school and investigated the common errors made by senior high school students in using metadiscourse. The errors were analyzed using Hyland’s model of metadiscourse and the researcher-made rubric. It also identified the levels of difficulty met by teachers in teaching metadiscourse while sample exercises designed to enhance metadiscourse usage in students’ academic writing were prepared. The statistical tools used were weighted mean and frequency distribution. Findings revealed that the Senior High School Curriculum offers English courses that require students to produce academic texts like position papers, research abstracts, and concept papers. After in-depth analysis, grammatical and punctuation errors were found particularly on the use of transitions, frame markers, evidentials, hedges, engagement markers, and self-mention. Endophoric markers, code glosses, boosters, and attitude markers were not employed in the writings. Meanwhile, teachers find it difficult to teach frame markers, boosters, hedges, and transitions.  Furthermore, the sample exercises constructed by the researcher contain activities on metadiscourse usage that are geared toward the development of senior high school students’ academic writing skill. It was recommended that students should be given more guidance and prompt feedback with regard to their written output so they would be able to reflect on their writings and make necessary improvements immediately. Finally, further research on metadiscourse usage in a larger number of corpus may be conducted.

Keywords: metadiscourse, academic writing, senior high school, common errors, sample exercises



Cite this article:
De Castro, T. J. (2022). Metadiscourse in academic writing of senior high school students. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 11(9), 55-67.