Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes towards use of first language in EFL classes

2019 IJRSE – Volume 8 Issue 1


Bozorgian, Mojtaba*
Applied Linguistics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada (

Luo, Cheng
Applied Linguistics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada (


English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners’ use of first language—known as code-switching (CS)—has long been incorporated in EFL learning classes in which teachers and learners share the same first language (L1). This study explored Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes and strategies corresponding to the use of CS at universities and private language institutions, and the frequency with which CS occurs. Participants comprised 85 female and male EFL teachers aged 20-50 with different education background and years of EFL teaching experience. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured follow-up interviews. Quantitative results indicate some significant differences among Iranian EFL teachers’ use of CS in relation to education degrees and teaching EFL locations. Analysis of interviews also reveals that Iranian EFL teachers used CS strategically as a last resort to some extent in order to enhance pedagogical functions, manage their classrooms, and establish interpersonal relationships with their learners.

Keywords: first language use; second language learning; codeswitching



*Corresponding Author