Validating the Persian versions of L2 ambiguity tolerance and learning approach scales and probing possible associations


Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh*
English Department, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran (,

Allahdadi, Shadi
English Department, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran (


The present study aims at validating the Persian versions of two-rarely explored scales among Iranian EFL learners. The first one is the ‘second language tolerance of ambiguity’ scale (SLTA) developed by Ely (1995) to measure students’ level of tolerating ambiguities. It includes 12 items and employs a 5-point Likert scale. The second one is the ‘revised study process questionnaire‘ (R-SPQ-2F) designed by Biggs, Kember, and Leung (2001). It consists of 20 items on a 5-point Likert scale. It measures learning approach and comprises two scales: deep and surface learning approach. Each scale includes two subscales: strategies and motive. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) substantiated the validity and reliability of the translated versions of scales in Iranian context. It was also revealed that there is a significant correlation between EFL learner’s ambiguity tolerance and learning approach. In particular, it was found that ambiguity tolerance is positively associated with deep learning approach and negatively with surface learning approach.

Keywords: ambiguity tolerance; learning approach; psychometric; CFA; EFL learners



*Corresponding Author