The emergence of Filipino values among forgiveness studies


Rungduin, Darwin C.*
Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Manila, Philippines (

Rungduin, Teresita T.
Philippine Normal University, Manila, Philippines (


This paper reviewed 6 forgiveness studies that were made to understand Filipino forgiveness behaviors. The aim was to extract general Filipino values as well as the cultural values that Enriquez proposed in his theory of kapwa. Using combined qualitative and quantitative approaches in the research reports of those studies, the values that were salient in the experience of forgiving a transgressor were identified. Results showed that certain personal (open-mindedness and understanding) and interpersonal (smooth interpersonal relationship and justice) characteristics become evident in forgiving another a transgressor. Likewise, loob-related values were recovered from the analysis. The value of freedom was contextualized in terms of its function in the forgiveness experience. Finally, a value-based forgiveness model was proposed based on the results.

Keywords: kapwa; forgiveness model; Filipino values; content analysis; loob



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