Against all odds: Socio-economic and political factors related to female labor force participation and decision making power in Bangladesh

2016 IJRSM – Volume 5 Issue 1


Rouf, Kazi Abdur*
York Center for Asian Research Center (YCAR), York University, Canada (


Gender inequality and discrimination is persistent in different socio-economic and political institutions. Women are mainly treated as second sex, sex objects, reproductive agent and their economic contributions to the family, market and state are largely ignored. These discriminations are transferred through the institution of patriarchy, labor force participation and different national and international programs and policy processes. The rigidity and confinement of women within households is experiencing minimal change. A majority of women continue to experience inequalities in different sectors of the society; both in developed and developing countries. However, in terms of gender inequality, female labor force participation is a major factor. This paper reviewed feminist literatures and author personal experiences working with women particularly marginalized women in many countries. The paper examines the interrelating issues of female labor force participation, patriarchy, differential household structures and development policies as they exist in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Grameen Bank; gender inequality; patriarchy; poverty; social reproduction; and women commoditization



*Corresponding Author