Ministry of Education, Taiwan (email@example.com)
This study explores how different motivation categories influence college students’ learning engagement behaviors and outcomes under the context of eastern culture. 178 junior college students were surveyed at a four-year research university in Taiwan. The study addressed two research questions: 1. Are there subgroups of students with significantly different motivation profiles? 2. If so, do these subgroups of students differ significantly in terms of their engagement behaviors and learning outcomes? Three motivational profiles were found based on individual differences in motivational beliefs (high intrinsic motivation, high extrinsic motivation, and high motivation [i.e., both high intrinsic and high extrinsic motivation]). Following ANCOVAs, the study confirmed that college students who have both high intrinsic and high extrinsic motivations have higher scores on specific engagement behaviors and learning outcomes. This finding suggests that a motivation profile of both high intrinsic and high extrinsic motivation is most beneficial for learning.
Keywords: motivation engagement; learning outcomes; higher education; cluster analysis