Interactive influence of experience, qualification, and gender on elementary school teachers’ attitudes towards external supervision of instruction


Igwebuike, Thomas B.*
College of Education, Warri, Nigeria (

Okandeji, Comfort O.
College of Education, Warri, Nigeria (

Onwuegbu, O. C.
College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria (


Several studies have been conceptualized to determine the efficacy of supervision of schools in general, and instruction in particular, by external supervisors, and have produced strands of evidence which converge to conclude that the exercise has not been effectively carried out.  It was speculated, in this study, that such laxity could influence teachers’ attitudes towards external supervision of instruction and that the influence could depend on some teacher variables and their interactions. Using 300 subjects drawn from a pool of elementary school (grades 1–6) teachers in Warri municipality, Nigeria and an instrument designed and validated for this purpose, it was found that experience and qualification significantly influenced their attitudes while gender did not. It was also found that experience by qualification, and qualification by gender interactions were significant. Both ordinal and dis-ordinal interactions were observed when these interactions were plotted using the various group means. The implications of these results for supervision of instruction by external supervisors and for further research are addressed in this article.

Keywords: elementary school; supervision of instruction; teachers’ attitudes



*Corresponding Author