BADANGAM: An indigenized multi-grade teaching model

2022 IJRSE – Volume 11 Issue 2

Available Online:  11 January 2022


Velasco, Rustom A.*
Libang Elementary School, Philippines (

Ramos, Allan O.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College, Philippines (

Azarias, Ranec A.
Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College, Philippines (


Multi-grade teaching has played a vital role in molding learners especially in areas lack classrooms, teachers, and other learning resources. Given its vital role, researches have been conducted exploring the pedagogical knowledge, skills, and challenges in multi-grade teaching. However, more investigations are needed to document the lived experiences and teaching mechanisms of multi-grade teachers. In such lights, this phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the lived experiences of the teachers and their teaching mechanisms in multi-grade teaching. Through interviews with eight (8) with the aid of an aide-mèmoire, the study produced extended texts as a result of transcribing the interview recordings. These extended texts were subjected to cool and warm analyses which revealed that the participants’ views on multi-grade teaching as challenging, fulfilling, love, and learning. In addition, the study surfaced the teaching mechanism of the participants which were dubbed as BADANGAM: Beginning with the Learners in Mind, Activating Interests through Varied Activities, Designing with the Learners in Mind, Adhering to Principles, Netting Learning through Varied Activities, Going Multi-Modal, Asking Questions, and Making Use of Varied Assessment. With these mechanisms, the BADANGAM Model in multi-grade teaching was formulated. Finally, the study recommends the provision of mitigation and intervention program and assistance to multi-grade teachers that shall help them outwit the challenges they face, the provision of reinforcing and additional trainings and seminars on teaching mechanisms in multi-grade teaching, the use of the BADANGAM model in multi-grade teaching, and the conduct of studies to test the effectiveness of the developed model.

Keywords: indigenized teaching, multi-grade teaching model, multi-grade instruction, phenomenology, qualitative research



Cite this article:
Velasco, R. A., Ramos, A. O., & Azarias, R. A. (2022). BADANGAM: An indigenized multi-grade teaching model. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 11(2), 27-42.

*Corresponding Author