Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan (email@example.com)
Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan (Younis.firstname.lastname@example.org)
The present comparative exploratory study aimed to discover and compare the attitudes and motivational orientation of secondary and higher secondary public and private school students in Pakistan in learning English as foreign language. The study was based on the socio-educational model proposed by Gardner (2010) exploiting the psychological aspects like attitude and motivation of human cognition in learning English as a second or foreign language. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select 400 participants for the study, 200 each from public and private sector. Data collection tool was adopted from Gardner’s attitude and motivation test battery (AMTB) with 38 items on a six point Likert scale. Collected data from the survey was statistically analyzed using SPSS 22 to check the favorable patterns. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to check the co-linearity among the variable items and the reliability of the scale was ensured through the reliability statistics (reported Alpha .903). Independent-sample t-test was performed to compare the mean values of motivation and attitude of the public and private sector students. In addition to that, a similar comparison was made on the basis of students’ gender. The result of the t-test indicated that the private sector students possessed higher level of attitude and motivation in learning English as foreign language as compared to the public sector students. Similarly, the motivational orientation and attitude towards learning English of female students were higher than that of male students. Furthermore, the overall level of motivation and attitude of the students in both sectors found high. The study bears implications for different stakeholders with a lead for future researchers in the same field.
Keywords: attitude; motivation; public; private; secondary schools; Pakistan