Wade, Jay C.*
Fordham University, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Suryani, Luh Ketut
Udayana University and the Suryani Institute of Mental Health, Indonesia (email@example.com)
Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya
Udayana University and the Suryani Institute of Mental Health, Indonesia (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This exploratory study describes Balinese Hindu men’s definitions of masculinity or manhood. The research study involved direct and participant observation, interviewing key informants, group interviews with Balinese men, and survey research. In this sequential mixed-methods research design, the construct of masculinity was operationalized and relationships between religiosity, masculinity, and marital and life satisfaction were explored. Five areas were identified that describe Balinese masculinity: head of family, protector and provider, caring for others, strength of character, and characteristics of the self. The survey research showed that head of the family as an important masculinity experience was associated with satisfaction with one’s marriage. Multiple regression analysis indicated that caring for others was the only significant predictor of life satisfaction. Religiosity related positively to the importance of the masculinity experiences and life satisfaction, and accounted for the positive relationship between masculinity and life satisfaction. The findings are discussed within the context of Balinese religious culture.
Keywords: Balinese men; masculinity; marriage; culture; religion; spirituality